International Court of Justice

ICJ

Alleged Violations of 1955 Treaty of Amity (Iran vs. United States)

The treaty of Amity was signed in 1955 by the United States, under president Dwight Eisenhower and Iran, by Iranian prime minister Hossein Ala. The treaty came in a period when Iran was trying to attract foreign investors through a variety of means. It emphasized friendly relations while encouraging mutual trade and investments and regulating consular relations. Since June of 1957, it has provided legal framework for bilateral relations between Ian and the United States. Clause two of Article XXI of the treaty roughly states that consent from either side should suffice to take a case to the International Court of Justice. In November 1979, the hostage crisis at the American embassy took place. The United States responded by cutting political ties with Tehran and a few days later conducted a military operation in Iran in order to free the hostages. This was the first round of U.S. sanctions against Iran and all Iranian assets in the United States were frozen. The tension rose and continued rising, Iran has now taken the case to the ICJ. It is the ICJ’s job to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted by states. Judges must come to a consensus on how to deal with the issue that has been occurring for decades.

 

Illegal detention of Kulbhushan Jadhav (India vs. Pakistan)

Kulbhushan Sudhir Jadhav (also spelled Kulbhushan Yadav, alleged alias Hussain Mubarak Patel) (born 16 April 1970) is an Indian national. It is alleged by the Pakistani government that he was arrested in the Pakistani province of Balochistan on charges of terrorism and spying for India's intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing. On 10 April 2017, Indian foreign ministry said he had been "kidnapped last year from Iran and his subsequent presence in Pakistan has never been explained credibly".