United Nations Environmental Program

UNEP

The question of creating an international framework on gold mining

Mining industries provide most of the materials we rely on to build infrastructures and instruments of daily use, to obtain large amounts of energy, and to supply agriculture with fertilizers that enable most of the foods produced. At the same time, mining is the human activity that has been more disturbing to the environment and is linked to large social impacts and inequalities. The discussion of international framework on this, specifically gold, is crucial regarding this topic.

The question of thorium-based nuclear power

Thorium power has a protactinium problem. In 1980, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) observed that protactinium, a chemical element generated in thorium reactors, could be separated and allowed to decay to isotopically pure uranium 233—suitable material for making nuclear weapons. An international discussion on the use of thorium based nuclear power is of high priority and requires debate.

Measures to resolve climate-change-induced conflict

The effects of global warming on the world’s physical landscape often lead to geopolitical changes that threaten to destabilize already vulnerable regions, like the Horn of Africa. The stresses on natural resources undermine the capacity of nations to govern themselves, and increase the chances of conflicts. When compared to other drivers of international security risks, climate change can be modeled with a relatively high degree of certainty.